Thursday, October 27, 2005

CHAPTER 4
"OUR MALAYAN HERITAGE"

Philippine Heritage was enriched by early contacts with the advance civilization of India, China, Japan, and Arabia.

i - FOOD and DRINKS
ii - MODE OF DRESSING
iii - TATTOOS
iv - HOUSE
v - NATURAL COURTESY and POLITENESS
vi - CLEANLINESS and NEATNESS
vii - AMUSEMENTS
viii - MUSIC
ix - MARRIAGE CUSTOMS
x - The WEDDING CEREMONY
xi - GOVERNMENT
xii - LAWS
xiii - RELIGION
xiv -BURIAL and MOURNING CUSTOMS
xv - SUPERSTITIONS
xvi - LANGUAGES
xvii - WRITING
xviii - LITERACY of the EARLY FILIPINOS
xix - LITERATURE
xx - EDUCATION
xxi - ARTS
xxii - SCIENCES
xxiii - WEIGHTS and MEASURES
xxiv - CALENDARS
xxv - COINAGE
xxvi - DOMESTIC and FOREIGN TRADE
xxvii - AGRICULTURE and INDUSTRIES

i - FOOD and DRINKS

  • staple food of the early Filipinos was rice
  • aside from rice, their food consisted of carabao meat, pork, chickens, sea turtles, fish, bananas and other fruits and vegetables.
  • they cooked their food in earthen pots or in bamboo tubes.
  • they te with their fingers, using banana plants as plates and coconut shells as drinking cups.
  • made fire to cook their ood by rubbing two piececs of dry wood which when heated, produced a tiny flame.
  • they stored their drinking water in big earthen jars or in huge clean bamboo tues.
  • tuba - popular wine which was made from coconut.
  • other wines being manufactured was basi (an Ilocano wine made from sugarcane); pangasi (Bisayan wine made from fermented rice); lambanog (tagalog wine taken from the coconut palm); and the tapuy (an Igorot wine distilled from rice).

ii - MODE OF DRESSING
Men
  • wore a collarless, Short-sleeve jacket called kangan and strip cloth, called bahag wrapped around the waist and in between legs.
  • Kangan – reached slightly below the waist
    • It was dyed (tining) either in blue or black, except that of the chief which was red.
  • men use the putong, a piece of cloth wound around the head.
  • they had jewels, (gold necklaces, gold armlets called kalombigas nad the anklets filled with agates, carnelians and other colored glass).
Women
  • wore a wide-sleeved jacket called baro.
  • Their skirt was called patadyong.
    • it was a piece of cotton cloth which they wrapped about their waists and let fall to their feet.
  • jewels consisted of gold necklaces, gold bracelets, large gold earrings, and gold rings.
Men and Women went brefoot. nd inserted gold between their teeth as an ornament.



iii - TATTOOS
Tattoos srved 2 puropses:
  1. to enhance their bodily beauty
  2. to show their war record.
  • the more a men warrior had killed in a battle, the more tattooed he was.
  • women have less tattooed than men.


iv - HOUSE

Houses were made of wood, bamboo, and palm leaves.
  • each house had a bamboo ladder that could be drawn up at night or when the family was out.
  • batalan - this is where jars of water were kept for household purposes.
  • some of them livced in tree-houses (house uilt on the top of trees) for better protection from enemies
  • Badjaos - (sea-gypsies) of the Sulu Sea still live in boat-houses, as their forefathers did.

v - NATURAL COURTESY and POLITENESS

  • early Filipinos were courteous and polite
    • when two persons of equal rank met on the road, they removed their putong (turban) as a sign of courtesy
    • when a person addressesd his superioir, he took off his putong, put it over his leftr shoulder like a towel, and bowed low,
      • he addressed his superior with the word 'po', which is equivalent to 'sir'.
      • he spoke in polite language
  • when walking, women walks ahead, and the men followed behind.

vi - CLEANLINESS and NEATNESS

  • Filipinos were clean and neat in their personal habits.
  • they bathed daily
  • they washed their hair regularly with gugo and water. They annointed it coconut oil and other lotions
  • they washed mouth and clean their teeth. they chewed buyo which made their teeth colored but strong.
  • they kept their homes clean.
  • Father Francisco Collin said "they keep a vessel full of water at the door of every home, nd every person, whether belonging to the house or not, upon entering, takes water from the vessel nd washes his feet, especially during the rainy season."

vii - AMUSEMENTS

  • they held banquets to celebrate a good harvest, a wedding, a religious sacrifice, and a victory in a war
  • these banquets were celebrated with much eating drinking, singing, and dancing.
  • other forms of amusements are: games as carabao races, wrestling, fencing, boat races, and stone-throwing contests.
viii - MUSIC

  • they had various musical instruments and numerous dances and songs for different occasions.
  • among their musical instruments were :
      • kudyapi - tagalog guitar
      • kalaleng - tinggian nose-flute
      • kulintang - moro xylophone
      • tultogan - bisayan bamboo drum
      • silbay - Ilocano reed flute
      • surcan - subanum cymbal
  • folk dances of the early Filipinos were charming.
      • kumintang - tagalog love dance
      • mahinhin - tagalog courtship dance
      • dandansoy - bisayan tuba dance
      • paujalay - moro wedding dance
      • tadok - tinggian love dance
  • their songs expressed all aspects of life - love, war, labor, religion, and death
      • tagumpay - tagalog song of victory
      • dallu - Negrito religious song
      • ayog-ku - igorot serenade song
      • bactal - tagbanua death song
      • dallot - ilocano ballad song
      • kuilay-kuilay - tingian wine song
      • tudob - agusan harvest song
ix - MARRIAGE CUSTOMS
  • it is customary for them to marry within their rank
  • however, there was no strict prohibition against intermarriages between the nobility and the commoner and between the rich and the poor.
Before marriage:
  • the groom gave a drowry (bigaykaya) to the family of the bride. it consisted of gold, land, slaves, or anything else of value.
  • the groom had to work in the house of the girl for a certain period of time
  • they already practiced divorced. The grounds for divorce were:
      • adultery on the part of the wife
      • desertion on the part of the husband
      • loss of affection
      • cruelty
      • insanity
      • childlessness

x - The WEDDING CEREMONY

On the day of the wedding:
  • wedding ceremony would take place at the groom's house
  • the friends of the groom went to bride's house to bring her to the home of the groom.
  • the priestess, joined the hands of the couple over a bowl of uncooked rice and pronounced them man and wife.

xi - GOVERNMENT

  • barangay - a Hispanized form of the Malayan word balangay, which means "sailboat".
      • they applied the name barangay to their settlement in honor of the sailboat that brought them to Philippine shores
      • each barangay consisted of about 100 families.
      • ruler of barangay was called datu.
        • he was also known a hari or raja
        • in time of peace, he was the chief executive, legislator, and judge
        • in war, he was the commander of the barangay warriors
        • he usually obtained his position by inheritance.
        • his son will inherit the datuship, if the datu dies.
        • if the datu died childless, the barangay chose a man to be the datu on the basis of his wisdom, physical strength, or wealth.

xii - LAWS
ORAL laws:
  • customs (ugali) of the race which were handed down orally from generation to generation
  • Lubluban - a woman, legendry law-giver
      • the great granddaughter of the first man and woman of the world
WRITTEN laws:
  • were promulgated by the datus with the help of the elders, and were put into writing
  • written laws were announced to the people by a barangay crier known as umalahokan.
  • these laws were put on the barks of trees, wood, leaves or cloth.
Code of Kalantiaw - a well-known code of laws supposedly given by Datu Kalantiaw of Aklan in 1433 is a clever hoax. The hoax was done by Jose E. Marco, an antique collector from Negros Occidental who gave the document to James E. Robertson of the National Library in 1914. It could not be authentic because of its suspicious origin, the strange writig and modern words in the text, and the un-Filipino harshness of its laws (e.g. flogging, exposurer to ants, swimming for hours).


xiii - RELIGION

Ancient Filipinos were pagans. their supreme God was Bathala, creator of heaven, earth, and men.
  • early Filipinos worshipped ancestral spirits called anitos (Tagalog) or diwatas (Bisayan)
  • sacrifices called maganito were offered.
  • sacrifices was performed by a priest or priestess called katalona or baylana.
They believed in life after death

xiv -BURIAL and MOURNING CUSTOMS

  • In burying their dead, the corpse was embalmed and was buried amidst deep sorrow ner his home, in cave, or on a headland overlooking the sea.
  • during the period of mourning, relatives wore rattan bands around their necks, arms, and legs.
  • they abstained from eating meat and drinking wine.
  • larao - mourning custom for deceased datu
  • no colored clothes were worn by the grieving people
  • all wars and quarrels were suspended
  • singing in boats returning from the sea was prohibited
  • all warriors carried their spears with their tips pointed downward and their daggers with hilts reversed.

xv - SUPERSTITIONS

They believed in witches, suc has the asuang who assumed the form of a dog, a bird, or any oter animal
  • mangkukulam - who caused people to die or to be sick by pricking a toy with hisd magic pin
  • tianak - who sucked the baby's entrails by means of his elongated probosis
  • tigbalang - who appeared in the form of a dog, a horse, or an old man to deceive his victims
They believed in the magical power of amulets or charms, such as the:
  • anting-anting - which was believed to make its possessor invulnerable to iron wepons
  • gayuma - a love potion which can arouse an adamant woman's affection
  • odom - a Bicol magic herb which makes its possessor invisible to the human eye
  • uiga - Bisayan charm which enables any man to cross a river without getting wet

xvi - LANGUAGES

Early Filipinos had different languages and dialects.
  • all of them originated from a common linguistic source - the Malayo-Polynesian language, the mother tongue of the Pacific races.

xvii - WRITING

Early Filipinos used sharp pointed iron instrument called sipol as pen.
  • they wrote on banana leaves, tree-barks, and bamboo tubes
  • the direction of their writing was from left to right
  • ancient alphabet consisted of three vowels and 14 consonants

xiii - LITERATURE

ORAL literature -
  1. myths and legends which recounted of the world and the origin of man, woman, and other creatures
  2. songs and poems which chanted the deeds of their gods and heroes
  3. fables, proverbs (sawikain) and riddles (bugtong)
Darangan of the Maranaws and the Ilim and the Hud-hud of the Ifugaos are examples of the existing specimens of ancient oral poetry

WRITTEN literature -

tarsilas - surviving pre-spanish specimen. It is a Muslim genealogies of Mindanao and Sulu.


xix - EDUCATION

they had INFORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
  • the children studied in their own homes with their parents or with some old men in the baranggays as tutors.
  • they were taught how to read,write, perform simple arithmetic operation, the use of weapons, lubus (art of acquiring amulets and talismans) and tribal customs
  • boys - were trained to be warriors, hunters, fisherman, farmers, marinersand craftsmen.
  • girls - were taught houselhold chores

xx - ARTS

Arts were part of their cultural heritage
  • Architecture - bahay kubo- style of home
        • their houses of bamboo, wood , nipa, and palm-leaves which were cool, cozy, and suitable shelters
  • painting - was shown in their ancient tattoo art.
    • the used of dagger or knife as brush, black soot and jungle spas as colors, and human body as canvas
  • sculptors carved statues in wood, clay, gold, and ivory.
    • statues were called likha (in Tagalog) or landang (Bicol), were made in memory of their anitos or ancestors.
    • they also made fine carvings on the handles of daggers, krises, bolos, and knives

xxi - SCIENCES

  • they possessed some knowledge of science.
  • they knew curative value of medicinal plants and herbs
  • medical men - had herbs as antidotes for all kinds of poison
  • medical lore - was associated with religion and magic
  • they knew astronomy
  • also engineering - construct forts(kuta)
          • irrigation ditches and rice terraces
  • could perform arithmetic operation
Native name for numerals:
    • isa (one)
    • puo (ten)
    • daan (hundred)
    • libo (thousand)
    • angao (one million)
    • kati (ten million)
    • gahala (one hundred million)

xxii - WEIGHTS and MEASURES

Early Filipinos had their own weights and measures.

weighting things:
    • talaro - a kind of balance scale.
measures of capacity:
    • kaban - (25 gantas)
    • salop - (one ganta)
    • kaguitna - (one-half ganta)
    • gatang - (one chupa)
measures of length:
    • dipa - the length between the tip of the thumb and that of the middle finger when extended.
    • tumuro - the length between the tip of the thumb and that of forefinger when extended
    • sandamak - the width of the hand with the five fingers pressed together
    • sandali - the width of one finger
xxiii - CALENDARS

  • early calendars of the Bisayans contained seven days in a week ,and twelve motnhs a year.
  • each of the 12 months contained 30 days, except the last month which had 26 days or total of 365 days a year.
  • ifugao calendars
      • contains 13 months a year, each having 28 dyas
      • the ifugao have a tribal keeper called tumunoh, 13 strings represening the 13 months of the year.

xxiv - COINAGE

Early Filipinos knew the art of coinage.
  • several specimens of their ancient coins were found in jars (GUI's) which had been execavated in Bataan and Manila.
  • coins were:
    • cone-shaped gold pieces, usually bearing the imprint of the Malayan letter M on their flat bases.
    • they are called piloncitos by local numismtists, or collectors of coins.
xxv - DOMESTIC and FOREIGN TRADE

Domestic trade was carried on by means of BARTER.
  • Captain Miguel de Loarca said: "filipinos of the inland region exchanged their rice nd cototn for fish, salt, nd other products raised by the dwellers of coastal district"
the usual method of trading with foriegn merchants was by barter in wich they offered theior own products i exchange for the products of other countries.
  • Chao Ju-kua (1225) and Wng Tayuan (1349), Chinese writers observed that they were honest in their commercial transaction

xxvi - AGRICULTURE and INDUSTRIES

Farming was the main industry of ancient Filipinos.
two methods of cultivation were used:
  1. kaingin method - in which the land was cleared by setting fire to the shrub s and bushes, after which holes were bored in the ground wit hpointed stickes and seeds were then planted there.
  2. regular means of tillge using wooden plows and harrows drawn by carabaos.
Other industries of early Filipios were fishing, mining, lumbering, weving, mea work, making tools and waepons, manufacturing of wines, rsing of poultry and stock, tanning and shipbuiling.








16 Comments:

At 11:37 AM, Blogger Mary Morgan said...

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At 9:49 AM, Blogger Mario said...

This blog is a good idea. Others with specific knowledge of any subject matter in the outline should contribute to add depth.

May I offer a correction on weights and measures?: one "dipa" is the distance between outstretched arms, measured between the tips of the middle fingers; like the wingspan of birds and planes. One "dangkal" is measured between the tips of the thumb and the little finger with the hand splayed. It is customary to stretch the fingers apart to the max to obtain the longest measurement for a dangkal. Those who may have longer middle fingers would favor using them to measure the dangkal.

 
At 1:01 AM, Blogger jayson villaruz said...

Salamat po sa mga detalye dito sa site na to...at sa gumawa....nasagot na po kasi yung mga hinahanap kong bagay....

 
At 8:35 PM, Blogger Maryquelea Ann Sanchez said...

aka_shane_dhoze@yahoo.com
tnx sa site na ito ngawa ko yung report ko.

 
At 8:35 PM, Blogger Maryquelea Ann Sanchez said...

aka_shane_dhoze@yahoo.com
tnx sa site na ito ngawa ko yung report ko.

 
At 5:20 AM, Blogger i_Am_mE said...

uhm, thanks talaga sa blogpage na to... kung sino ka man, hulog ka ng langit... ang dami kong nakuha na gagamitin ko sa exams namin!! thanks a lot!!

 
At 8:26 AM, Blogger marjorie said...

thank you so much sa gumawa ng site na toh...i learned a lot...
marjorie_facuri@yahoo.com

 
At 6:01 AM, Blogger lalola said...

weee i love this..lahat ng klangan ko nandito' hopfuly meron din present time para evrybody knows the difference bout the past events and present..

 
At 10:00 PM, Blogger Ako c Khei Jei said...

tnx dhil ngwa ko ung projct dhl d2.....

 
At 10:47 AM, Blogger Rej said...

this site helped me a lot in my research...
can i make a suggestion...
can you please include photos also here...some of my research requires photos...
e.g. : the malay burial and morning customs...
thanks a lot!
and more powers!!

 
At 10:59 AM, Blogger Rej said...

this site helped me a lot in my research...
can i make a suggestion...
can you please include photos also here...some of my research requires photos...
e.g. : the malay burial and morning customs...
thanks a lot!
and more powers!!

 
At 9:34 AM, Blogger Kennyran said...

do you a bibliography for this?

 
At 3:36 AM, Blogger Adrian Miraflor said...

may i know if you have the lyrics of this songs?
-tagumpay (tagalog song)
-ayeg-klu (igorot serenade song)
-bactal
-tudob (agusan harvest song).
thanks...that would help me alot...or maybe if you have any info where i can those that would be.God bless

 
At 3:37 AM, Blogger Adrian Miraflor said...

may i know if you have the lyrics of this songs?
-tagumpay (tagalog song)
-ayeg-klu (igorot serenade song)
-bactal
-tudob (agusan harvest song).
thanks...that would help me alot...or maybe if you have any info where i can those that would be.God bless

 
At 6:39 AM, Blogger Cora Magallanes said...

hope all is well.am working on my thesis on old Philippine Unit of Distance. can i have the complete name of the book and the author that you have used so that i can check the other old unit of measurements.
thanks in advance.

 

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