Sunday, November 20, 2005


Why Did the Filipinos Serve Spain
The Filipinos served Spain instead of serving their own countrymen because of three reasons:
  1. The Filipinos were not united. They did not think of themselves as one nation. So the Spaniards divided and conquered them. Spain played one tribe against the another. For example, the Visayans were used to put down a revolt in the Tagalog region. The Christian Filipinos were used to fight against the Filipinos were used to fight against the Filipino Muslims (Moros) and the pagan minorities.
  2. The Filipinos were converted to the Roman Catholic religion. So Filipinos were laugh to be loyal to the Spanish officials and priests who converted them and who defended that religion. The Filipinos fought on the side of Catholic Spain against the Muslims and the Protestant Dutch and British.
  3. The Filipinos were offered rewards and honors by the Spanish rulers. The Spanish flattered and took care of the royal Filipinos. But they punished and killed the Filipinos who disobeyed or revolted. Loyal Filipinos were given positions in the local government as "gobernadorcillos" (little governor) and "cabeza de barangay" (barangay chiefs). Master-of -Camp Francisco Laksamana received the highest military honor.

How Did Filipinos Serve Spain

  • The Filipino services to Spain during the Spanish era included the following:
    1. Filipinos provided food for the Spaniards
    2. Filipinos worked in industries owned by the Spaniards
    3. Filipinos fought on the side of Spain against Portugal
    4. Filipinos joined the military expeditions to Borneo and the Moluccas
    5. Filipinos fought on the side of Spain against the Dutch and British
    6. Filipinos joined the expedition to Indochina
    7. Filipinos joined the expedition to Taiwan
    8. Filipinos helped to colonize the Marianas, Palaus, and Caroline islands
    9. Filipinos helped put down the Chinese revolts and to stop the invasion of Lim-Ah-Hong
    10. Christian Filipinos fought with Spain against the Filipino Muslims (Moro)

Filipino as Farmers

  • Filipinos became the real farmers even in the farms owned by the Spaniards and other foreigners
  • This was because the Spaniards did nit like manual work. They thought that it was shameful to be seen working in dirty jobs like digging, farming, cleaning, or carrying heavy loads
  • So the Filipinos tilled the land and raised foodstuffs and livestock
  • All the Spaniards – officials, priests, soldiers, and civilians – would have died of starvation if the Filipinos had not provided them with food.

Filipinos in Industries

  • Filipinos became good builders of ships for the Spaniards
  • They constructed many galleons used in the Manila-Acapulco trade, and numerous galleys and frigates used by the Spaniards to fight their enemies

Filipinos the Portuguese Wars

  • 1568-70 Portuguese attacked the early Spanish settlements in Cebu
  • Raha Tupas and his Cebuano warriors remained loyal to Legaspi and fought on the side of Spain in these attacks.

Filipinos in the Expedition to Borneo and the Moluccas

  • 1578 – Filipinos helped the Sultan of Brunei, Sultan Sri Lela (Sirela), to regain his throne.
  • With a powerful expedition of 1,500 Filipinos, 400 Spaniards, 300 Bornean warriors, they sailed to the island of Borneo, fought and recaptured the city of Brunei and regained the usurped throne
  • The military expeditions to the Moluccas were not as successful. At first, the expeditions were sent to try to capture the rich Moluccas (Spice Islands) from the Portuguese
  • Later, they were sent to capture it against the Dutch, who had taken over the Moluccas colony (17th century)
  • These numbers show that thousands of Filipinos fought in these military wars to colonize the Moluccas unsuccessfully:

(no. ships)

Filipinos in the Dutch Wars

  • The Dutch wanted to make us a colony by defeating the Spaniards
  • The British became their allies, and both the British and Dutch ships blockaded Manila from (1621-22)
  • They harassed the people in coastal areas.
  • Finally, they tried to win the friendships of the Filipinos
  • But the Filipinos remained loyal to Spain and Catholicism against the Protestant Dutch and British

The results of the Dutch Wars were as follows:

    1. Victory of the Spaniards against the Dutch. The Philippines remained a colony of Spain because the Filipinos helped the Spaniards against the Dutch invaders
    2. The Filipinos suffered tremendously. The Filipino population declined during the Dutch Wars because many Filipinos were killed or ran to the hills
    3. The Philippine economy stagnated. Trade with Mexico, China and other countries was paralyzed. Filipinos left farms and industries to fight in the wars or to hide from them. The Filipinos paid the price of these costly wars.

Filipinos in Indochina

  • In 1858-63, about 1,500 Filipino soldiers were sent by Spain to help its ally, France, to conquer the Vietnamese.

Filipinos in Taiwan

  • 1626-1642, Spaniards tried to colonize Taiwan (Formosa), Filipinos took part in these expeditions
  • They manned two Spanish settlements and surrendered these garrisons on August 24, 1624.
  • The Dutch took over the island of Taiwan (Formosa)

Filipinos in the Marianas, Palaus, and Carolines

  • The Marianas, Palaus, and Carolines are islands archipelagoes in the Pacific Ocean near Mindanao that were ruled by the Spanish governor in Manila and the Spanish bishop of Cebu.
  • The Filipinos helped the Spaniards to make these islands a colony and a Catholic area.
  • Filipinos went to Guam to settle down permanently in that island.

Filipinos Against the Chinese

  • Chinese were excellent artists and tradesmen
  • They were important in the economy of the country
  • Chinese revolted five times during the Spanish era – 1603, 1639, 1667, 1686, and 1762
  • They were treated badly by the Spanish rulers
  • Abuses to the Chinese:
    1. the Chinese were forced to pay heavy taxes;
    2. all Chinese were forced to lived in the Parian (Chinatown) outside the city walls;
    3. the Chinese were ordered to cut off their queues (long hair);
    4. many Chinese were deported to reduce their population; and
    5. The Chinese were massacred every time they revolted.
  • The greatest Filipino hero of the Chinese revolts was Francisco Laksamana, commander of the Pampangueno troops in the Spanish army
  • He defeated the Chinese rebels in the hills of Antipolo in June 1662 and saved the city of Manila

Filipinos and the Moro Wars

  • Moro – in Spanish term means “Muslim”
  • The Filipino Moros in Mindanao and Sulu were not conquered by Spain
  • Christian Filipino heroes were:
    1. Juan Aquino
    2. Nicolas Martinez
    3. Cirilo Maypit and
    4. Geronimo Sundulin
  • Filipino Muslims who defended Islam and Moro independence were:
    1. Sultan Kudarat, the greatest warrior of Mindanao, who defended Lamitan against the Spaniards in 1837
    2. Sultan Jamalul Alam, who defended Jolo in 1876 and leased North Borneo (Sabah) to the British in 1878
    3. Datu Utto, who defended Cotabato in 1886-87;
    4. Datu Amai Pakpak, who defended Lanao in 1889-91;
    5. Datu Pian (Amal Mingka), who conquered Cotabato and Tamontaka in 1878-99.

Saturday, November 19, 2005

Chapter 7



Central Government under Spain

They established “one central government” in the Philippines